The Influence and Semantics of using Animals and Birds Symbols in Greek, Roman and Coptic Art

نوع المستند : المقالة الأصلية



The symbol comes from the joint role of the artist’s imagination and perceived reality and animals are one of the most conspicuous features of Egyptian art. The ancient Egyptians animals were closely associated with deathand animal imagery was also used to convey fundamental ideas about the nature of good and evil. Many animals contributed to both the sacred and secular worlds of the Egyptians. Central ideas are often illustrated in ancient Egyptian art with animal imageryalso animals played a dominate role in ancient Egyptian religion and culture also tomb reliefs and paintings, revealed an acute awareness of the appearance and natural behavior of animals. During the New Kingdom the ancient Egyptians became more involved in the symbolism of the animals and the ancient Egyptians connected their qualities to the gods they worshipped and never worshipped the animal itself, also the animal head symbolizes the superhuman endowments of the god.
Animal cults such as Thoth, Bastet, Anubis and their ba also the dog played significant role in the funerary customs in ancient Egypt, as well as the two most popular animals stand-ins for the king were the lion and the bull so the ancient Egyptian thought that the king’s hybrid nature (part man, part animal, part god). The Egyptian artist used to represent all types of animals, birds and insects in his art as a part of representing his daily life, as seen on the walls of the Egyptian temples and tombsas well as in Egyptian art, gods and goddesses were depicted as humans, animals, or as humans with animal heads god. The ancient Egyptians used to imitate nature, applied human figures, animals and birds in vitality movements. Early Egyptian animals was diverse, and included elephants, lions, gazelle, leopards, ibex, Oryx, and wild cattleso animals were an important part of Egyptian mortuary practices from the Predynastic period until the Roman period. A parallel, minor sources is represented by hieroglyphs which includes tiny but detailed representations of over one hundred animals and over sixty parts of animals. Some species found in the material objects associated with the dead in the shape of sacred animals. sacred animals were ceremonially buried in special cemeteries near the temple of their associated deityand models of animals were left in tombs, which occasionally reproduce animals related activities, such as fishing. Also the hunting behavior is represented in Egyptian art, including that of birds.
Coptic art began in the fourth century A.D and religious persecution by the Roman authorities of Christian partisans everywhere, resulted in an increase in the use of these symbols. The use of the symbolic form of the ancient Egyptian and the incoming influences, such as Greek and Roman art, that effected the form of symbols in Coptic art. Coptic art took its themes from ancient Egyptian influences which became essential in Coptic art, which is Christian religious stories, but adapted to suit Christian tastes and purposes. Christian symbols such as fish, dolphins and crosses cover so many artistic Coptic objects which are full of life and movement as well as the Coptic artist inspired symbols to express evil from local symbols often associated with the desert environment.

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